This page provides a glossary of insurance terms and definitions that are commonly used in the insurance business. New terms will be added to the glossary over time.
The definitions in this glossary are developed by the NAIC Research and Actuarial Department staff based on various insurance references. These definitions represent a common or general use of the term. Some words and/or phrases may be defined differently by other entities, or used in a context such that the definition shown may not be applicable.
Accident - an unexpected event or circumstance without deliberate intent.
Accident Insurance - insurance for unforeseen bodily injury.
Accident Only - an insurance contract that provides coverage, singly or in combination, for death, dismemberment, disability, or hospital and medical care caused by or necessitated as a result of accident or specified kinds of accident.
Accident Only or AD&D - policies providing coverage, singly or in combination, for death, dismemberment, disability, or hospital and medical care caused by or necessitated as a result of accident or specified kinds of accidents. Types of coverage include student accident, sports accident, travel accident, blanket accident, specific accident or accidental death and dismemberment (AD&D).
Accidental Bodily Injury - unexpected injury to a person.
Accidental Death & Dismemberment - an insurance contract that pays a stated benefit in the event of death and/or dismemberment caused by accident or specified kinds of accidents.
Accumulation Period - period of time insured must incur eligible medical expenses at least equal to the deductible amount in order to establish a benefit period under a major medical expense or comprehensive medical expense policy.
Actual Cash Value - repayment value for indemnification due to loss or damage of property; in most cases it is replacement cost minus depreciation
Actuarial Report - (PC Insurance)a document or other presentation, prepared as a formal means of conveying to the state regulatory authority and the Board of Directors, or its equivalent, the actuary's professional conclusions and recommendations, of recording and communicating the methods and procedures, of assuring that the parties addressed are aware of the significance of the actuary's opinion or findings and that documents the analysis underlying the opinion. (In Life and Health) this document would be called an "Actuarial Memorandum."
Actuary - business professional who analyzes probabilities of risk and risk management including calculation of premiums, dividends and other applicable insurance industry standards.
Adjuster - a person who investigates claims and recommends settlement options based on estimates of damage and insurance policies held.
Admission - hospital inpatient care for any medical condition.
Admitted Assets - insurer assets which can be valued and included on the balance sheet to determine financial viability of the company.
Admitted Company - an insurance company licensed to do business in a state(s), domiciled in an alternative state or country.
Advance Premiums - occur when a policy has been processed, and the premium has been paid prior to the effective date. These are a liability to the company and not included in written premium or the unearned premium reserve.
Adverse Selection - the social phenomenon whereby persons with a higher than average probability of loss seek greater insurance coverage than those with less risk.
Advisory Organization - a group supported by member companies whose function is to gather loss statistics and publish trended loss costs.
Affiliate - a person or entity that directly, or indirectly, through one or more other persons or entities, controls, is controlled by or is under common control with the insurer.
Agent - an individual who sells, services, or negotiates insurance policies either on behalf of a company or independently.
Aggregate - the maximum dollar amount or total amount of coverage payable for a single loss, or multiple losses, during a policy period, or on a single project.
Aggregate Cost Payments - method of reimbursement of a health plan with a corporate entity that directly provides care, where (1) the health plan is contractually required to pay the total operating costs of the corporate entity, less any income to the entity from other users of services, and (2) there are mutual unlimited guarantees of solvency between the entity and the health plan that put their respective capital and surplus at risk in guaranteeing each other.
Aircraft - coverage for aircraft (hull) and their contents; aircraft owners' and aircraft manufacturers liability to passengers, airports and other third parties.
ALAE - an estimate of the claims settlement associated with a particular claim or claims.
Alien Company - an insurance company formed according to the laws of a foreign country. The company must conform to state regulatory standards to legally sell insurance products in that state.
Allied Lines - coverages which are generally written with property insurance, e.g., glass, tornado, windstorm and hail; sprinkler and water damage; explosion, riot, and civil commotion; growing crops; flood; rain; and damage from aircraft and vehicle, etc.
All-Risk - also known as open peril, this type of policy covers a broad range of losses. The policy covers risks not explicitly excluded in the policy contract.
Alternative Workers' Compensation - other than standard workers' compensation coverage, employer's liability and excess workers' compensation (e.g., large deductible, managed care).
Ambulatory Services - health services provided to members who are not confined to a health care institution. Ambulatory services are often referred to as "outpatient" services.
Annual Statement - an annual report required to be filed with each state in which an insurer does business. This report provides a snapshot of the financial condition of a company and significant events which occurred throughout the reporting year.
Annuitant - the beneficiary of an annuity payment, or person during whose life and annuity is payable.
Annuities – Immediate Non-variable - an annuity contract that provides for the fixed payment of the annuity at the end of the first interval of payment after purchase. The interval may vary, however the annuity payouts must begin within 13 months.
Annuity - a contract providing income for a specified period of time, or duration of life for a person or persons.
Appraisal - an estimate of value.
Arbitration - a binding dispute resolution tactic whereby a conciliator with no interest in the outcome intercedes.
Assessed Value - estimated value for real or personal property established by a taxing entity
Asset - probable future economic benefits obtained or controlled by a particular entity as a result of past transactions or events. An asset has three essential characteristics: It embodies a probable future benefit that involves a capacity, singly or in combination with other assets, to contribute directly or indirectly to future net cash inflows; A particular entity can obtain the benefit and control others' access to it; and The transaction or other event-giving rise to the entity's right to or control of the benefit has already occurred.
Asset Risk - in the risk-based capital formula, risk assigned to the company's assets.
Assigned Risk - A governmental pool established to write business declined by carriers in the standard insurance market.
Assisted Living Care - a policy or rider that provides coverage only while a policyholder is confined to an assisted living facility and meets the policy requirements for coverage.
Assumed Reinsurance - the assumption of risk from another insurance entity within a reinsurance agreement or treaty.
Authorized Company - an insurer licensed or admitted to do business in a particular state.
Authorized Control Level Risk Based Capital - theoretical amount of capital plus surplus an insurance company should maintain.
Authorized Reinsurance - reinsurance placed with a reinsurer who is licensed or otherwise allowed to conduct reinsurance within a state.
Auto Liability - coverage that protects against financial loss because of legal liability for motor vehicle related injuries (bodily injury and medical payments) or damage to the property of others caused by accidents arising out of ownership, maintenance or use of a motor vehicle (including recreational vehicles such as motor homes). Commercial is defined as all motor vehicle policies that include vehicles that are used primarily in connection with business, commercial establishments, activity, employment, or activities carried on for gain or profit. No Fault is defined by the state concerned.
Auto Physical Damage - motor vehicle insurance coverage (including collision, vandalism, fire and theft) that insures against material damage to the insured's vehicle. Commercial is defined as all motor vehicle policies that include vehicles that are used in connection with business, commercial establishments, activity, employment, or activities carried on for gain or profit.
Automobile Liability Insurance - coverage for bodily injury and property damage incurred through ownership or operation of a vehicle.
Balance Sheet - accounting statement showing the financial condition of a company at a particular date.
BCEGS - Building Code Effectiveness Grading Schedule - classification system for assessment of building codes per geographic region with special emphasis on mitigation of losses from natural disasters.
Beneficiary - an individual who may become eligible to receive payment due to will, life insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, trust, or other contract.
Benefits (Medical & Hospital Expenses) - total expenditures for health care services paid to or on behalf of a member.
Blanket coverage - coverage for property and liability that extends to more than one location, class of property or employee.
Boatowners/Personal Watercraft - covers damage to pleasure boats, motors, trailers, boating equipment and personal watercraft as well as bodily injury and property damage liability to others.
Bodily Injury - physical injury including sickness or disease to a person.
Boiler & Machinery or Equipment Breakdown & Machinery - coverage for the failure of boilers, machinery and other electrical equipment. Benefits include (i) property of the insured, which has been directly damaged by the accident; (ii) costs of temporary repairs and expediting expenses; and (iii) liability for damage to the property of others. Coverage also includes inspection of the equipment.
Bonds - a form of debt security whereby the debt holder has a creditor stake in the company. Obligations issued by business units, governmental units and certain nonprofit units having a fixed schedule for one or more future payments of money; includes commercial paper, negotiable certificates of deposit, repurchase agreements and equipment trust certificates.
Book Value - original cost, including capitalized acquisition costs and accumulated depreciation, unamortized premium and discount, deferred origination and commitment fees, direct write-downs, and increase/decrease by adjustment.
Broker - an individual who receives commissions from the sale and service of insurance policies. These individuals work on behalf of the customer and are not restricted to selling policies for a specific company but commissions are paid by the company with which the sale was made.
Builders' Risk Policies - typically written on a reporting or completed value form, this coverage insures against loss to buildings in the course of construction. The coverage also includes machinery and equipment used in the course of construction and to materials incidental to construction.
Burglary and Theft - coverage for property taken or destroyed by breaking and entering the insured's premises, burglary or theft, forgery or counterfeiting, fraud, kidnap and ransom, and off-premises exposure.
Business Auto - coverage for motor vehicles, other than those in the garage business, engaged in commerce. Business auto filings include singularly or in any combination coverage such as the following: Auto Liability, PIP, MP, Uninsured Motorist and/or Underinsured Motorists (UM/UIM); Specified Causes of Loss, Comprehensive, and Collision.
Business Interruption - loss of income as a result of property damage to a business facility.
Business owners Policy - business insurance typically for property, liability and business interruption coverage.
Calendar Year Deductible - in health insurance, the amount that must be paid by the insured during a calendar year before the insurer becomes responsible for further loss costs.
Capital and Surplus - a company's assets minus its liabilities.
Capital and Surplus Requirement - statutory requirement ordering companies to maintain their capital and surplus at an amount equal to or in excess of a specified amount to help assure the solvency of the company by providing a financial cushion against expected loss or misjudgments and generally measured as a company's admitted assets minus its liabilities, determined on a statutory accounting basis.
Capital Gains (Loss) - excess (deficiency) of the sales price of an asset over its book value. Calculated on the basis of original cost adjusted, as appropriate, for accrual of discount or amortization of premium and for depreciation.
Capitation Arrangement - a compensation plan used in connection with some managed care contracts where a physician or other medical provider is paid a flat amount, usually on a monthly basis, for each subscriber who has elected to use that physician or medical provider. Capitated payments are sometimes expressed in terms of a "per member/per month" payment. The capitated provider is generally responsible, under the conditions of the contract, for delivering or arranging for the delivery of all contracted health services required by the covered person.
Captive Agent - an individual who sells or services insurance contracts for a specific insurer or fleet of insurers.
Captive Insurer - an insurance company established by a parent firm for the purpose of insuring the parent's exposures.
Carrying Value (Amount) - the SAP book value plus accrued interest and reduced by any valuation allowance and any nonadmitted adjustment applied to the individual investment.
Cash - a medium of exchange.
Cash Equivalent - short-term, highly liquid investments that are both (a) readily convertible to known amounts of cash, and (b) so near their maturity that they present insignificant risk of changes in value because of changes in interest rates. Investments with original maturities of three months or less qualify under this definition.
Casualty Insurance - a form of liability insurance providing coverage for negligent acts and omissions such as workers compensation, errors and omissions, fidelity, crime, glass, boiler, and various malpractice coverages.
Catastrophe Bonds - Bonds issued by an insurance company with funding tied to the company's losses from disasters, or acts of God. A loss exceeding a certain size triggers a reduction in the bond value or a change in the bond structure as loss payments are paid out of bond funds.
Catastrophe Loss - a large magnitude loss with little ability to forecast.
Ceded Premium - amount of premium (fees) used to purchase reinsurance.
Ceding Company - an insurance company that transfers risk by purchasing reinsurance.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) - U.S. governmental agency responsible for the licensing of federally qualified HMOs. This was formerly the Health Care Financing Administration.
Change in Valuation Basis - a change in the interest rate, mortality assumption or reserving method or other factors affecting the reserve computation of policies in force.
Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU) - a professional designation awarded by the American College to persons in the life insurance field who pass a series of exams in insurance, investment, taxation, employee benefit plans, estate planning, accounting, management, and economics.
Chartered Property Casualty Underwriter (CPCU) - a professional designation awarded by the American Institute of Property and Casualty Underwriters to persons in the property and liability insurance field who pass a series of exams in insurance, risk management, economics, finance, management, accounting, and law. Designates must also have at least three years experience in the insurance business or related field.
Claim - a request made by the insured for insurer remittance of payment due to loss incurred and covered under the policy agreement.
Claims Adjustment Expenses - costs expected to be incurred in connection with the adjustment and recording of accident and health, auto medical and workers' compensation claims.
Claims-made Form - A type of liability insurance form that only pays if the both event that causes (triggers)the claim and the actual claim are submitted to the insurance company during the policy term
Class Rating - a method of determining rates for all applicants within a given set of characteristics such as personal demographic and geographic location.
Coinsurance - A clause contained in most property insurance policies to encourage policy holders to carry a reasonable amount of insurance. If the insured fails to maintain the amount specified in the clause (Usually at least 80%), the insured shares a higher proportion of the loss. In medical insurance a percentage of each claim that the insured will bear.
Collar - an agreement to receive payments as the buyer of an Option, Cap or Floor and to make payments as the seller of a different Option, Cap or Floor.
Collateral Loans - unconditional obligations for the payment of money secured by the pledge of an investment.
Collateralized Bond Obligations (CBOs) - an investment-grade bond backed by a pool of low-grade debt securities, such as junk bonds, separated into tranches based on various levels of credit risk.
Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (CMOs) - a type of mortgage-backed security (MBS) with separate pools of pass-through security mortgages that contain varying classes of holders and maturities (tranches) with the advantage of predictable cash flow patterns.
Combinations - a special form of package policy composed of personal automobile and homeowners insurance.
Combined Ratio - an indication of the profitability of an insurance company, calculated by adding the loss and expense ratios.
Commencement Date - date when the organization first became obligated for any insurance risk via the issuance of policies and/or entering into a reinsurance agreement. Same as "effective date" of coverage.
Commercial Auto - coverage for motor vehicles owned by a business engaged in commerce that protects the insured against financial loss because of legal liability for motor vehicle related injuries, or damage to the property of others caused by accidents arising out of the ownership, maintenance, use, or care-custody & control of a motor vehicle. This includes Commercial Auto Combinations of Business Auto, Garage, Truckers and/or Other Commercial Auto.
Commercial Earthquake - earthquake property coverage for commercial ventures.
Commercial Farm and Ranch - a commercial package policy for farming and ranching risks that includes both property and liability coverage. Coverage includes barns, stables, other farm structures and farm inland marine, such as mobile equipment and livestock.
Commercial Flood - separate flood insurance policy sold to commercial ventures.
Commercial General Liability - flexible & broad commercial liability coverage with two major sub-lines: premises/operations sub-line and products/completed operations sub-line.
Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities - a type of mortgage-backed security that is secured by the loan on a commercial property.
Commercial Multiple Peril - policy that packages two or more insurance coverages protecting an enterprise from various property and liability risk exposures. Frequently includes fire, allied lines, various other coverages (e.g., difference in conditions) and liability coverage. Such coverages would be included in other annual statement lines, if written individually. Include under this type of insurance multi-peril policies (other than farmowners, homeowners and automobile policies) that include coverage for liability other than auto.
Commercial Package Policy - provides a broad package of property and liability coverages for commercial ventures other than those provided insurance through a business owners policy.
Commercial Property - property insurance coverage sold to commercial ventures.
Commission - a percentage of premium paid to agents by insurance companies for the sale of policies.
Community Rating - a rating system where standard rating is established and usually adjusted within specific guidelines for each group on the basis of anticipated utilization by the group's employees.
Company Code - a five-digit identifying number assigned by NAIC, assigned to all insurance companies filing financial data with NAIC.
Completed Operations Liability - policies covering the liability of contractors, plumbers, electricians, repair shops, and similar firms to persons who have incurred bodily injury or property damage from defective work or operations completed or abandoned by or for the insured, away from the insured's premises.
Comprehensive (Hospital and Medical) - line of business providing for medical coverages; includes hospital, surgical, major medical coverages; does not include Medicare Supplement, administrative services (ASC) contracts, administrative services only (ASO) contracts, federal employees health benefit plans (FEHBP), medical only programs, Medicare and Medicaid programs, vision only and dental only business.
Comprehensive General Liability (CGL) - coverage of all business liabilities unless specifically excluded in the policy contract.
Comprehensive Personal Liability - comprehensive liability coverage for exposures arising out of the residence premises and activities of individuals and family members. (Non-business liability exposure protection for individuals.)
Comprehensive/Major Medical - policies that provide fully insured indemnity, HMO, PPO, or Fee for Service coverage for hospital, medical, and surgical expenses. Coverage excludes Short-Term Medical Insurance, the Federal Employees Health Benefit Program and non-comprehensive coverage such as basic hospital only, medical only, hospital confinement indemnity, surgical, outpatient indemnity, specified disease, intensive care, and organ and tissue transplant coverage.
Concurrent Causation - property loss incurred from two or more perils in which only one loss is covered but both are paid by the insurer due to simultaneous incident.
Conditions - requirements specified in the insurance contract that must be upheld by the insured to qualify for indemnification.
Condos - homeowners insurance sold to condominium owners occupying the described property.
Construction and Alteration Liability - covering the liability of an insured to persons who have incurred bodily injury or property damage from alterations involving demolition, new construction or change in size of a structure on the insured's premises.
Contingency Reserves - required by some jurisdictions as a hedge against adverse experience from operations, particularly adverse claim experience.
Contingent Liability - the liability of an insured to persons who have incurred bodily injury or property damage from work done by an independent contractor hired by the insured to perform work that was illegal, inherently dangerous, or directly supervised by the insured
Continuation of Care Requirement - statutory or contractual provision requiring providers to deliver care to an enrollee for some period following the date of a Health Plan Company's insolvency.
Continuing Care Retirement Communities - senior housing arrangements that in addition to housing include some provision for skilled nursing care.
Contract Reserves - reserves set up when, due to the gross premium structure, the future benefits exceed the future net premium. Contract reserves are in addition to claim and premium reserves.
Contractual Liability - liability coverage of an insured who has assumed the legal liability of another party by written or oral contract. Includes a contractual liability policy providing coverage for all obligations and liabilities incurred by a service contract provider under the terms of service contracts issued by the provider.
Convertible Term Insurance Policy - an insurance policy that can be converted into permanent insurance without a medical assessment. The insurer is required to renew the policy regardless of the health of the insured subject to policy conditions.
Coordination of Benefits (COB) - provision to eliminate over insurance and establish a prompt and orderly claims payment system when a person is covered by more than one group insurance and/or group service plan.
Copay - a cost sharing mechanism in group insurance plans where the insured pays a specified dollar amount of incurred medical expenses and the insurer pays the remainder.
Corrective Order - commissioner's directive of action to be completed by an insurer.
Covered Lives - The total number of lives insured, including dependents, under individual policies and group certificates.
Credit - individual or group policies that provide benefits to a debtor for full or partial repayment of debt associated with a specific loan or other credit transaction upon disability or involuntary unemployment of debtor, except in connection with first mortgage loans.
Credit – Assumption Agreement - an insurance certificate issued on an existing insurance contract indicating that another insurer has assumed all of the risk under the contract from the ceding insurance company.
Credit - Credit Default - coverage purchased by manufacturers, merchants, educational institutions, or other providers of goods and services extending credit, for indemnification of losses or damages resulting from the nonpayment of debts owed to them for goods or services provided in the normal course of their business.
Credit – Involuntary Unemployment - makes loan/credit transaction payments to the creditor when the debtor becomes involuntarily unemployed.
Credit Accident and Health (group and individual) - coverage provided to or offered to borrowers in connection with a consumer credit transaction where the proceeds are used to repay a debt or an installment loan in the event the consumer is disabled as the result of an accident, including business not exceeding 120 months duration.
Credit Disability - makes monthly loan/credit transaction payments to the creditor upon the disablement of an insured debtor.
Credit Health Insurance - policy assigning creditor as beneficiary for insurance on a debtor thereby remitting balance of payment to creditor should the debtor become disabled.
Credit Involuntary Unemployment - credit insurance that provides a monthly or lump sum benefit during an unpaid leave of absence from employment resulting from specified causes, such as layoff, business closure, strike, illness of a close relative and adoption or birth of a child. This insurance is sometimes referred to as Credit Family Leave.
Credit Life Insurance - policy assigning creditor as beneficiary for insurance on a debtor thereby remitting balance of payment to creditor upon death of debtor.
Credit Personal Property Insurance - insurance written in connection with a credit transaction where the collateral is not a motor vehicle, mobile home or real estate and that covers perils to the goods purchased through a credit transaction or used as collateral for a credit transaction and that concerns a creditor's interest in the purchased goods or pledged collateral, either in whole or in part; or covers perils to goods purchased in connection with an open-end transaction.
Credit Placed Insurance - insurance that is purchased unilaterally by the creditor, who is the named insured, subsequent to the date of the credit transaction, providing coverage against loss, expense or damage to property as a result of fire, theft, collision or other risks of loss that would either impair a creditor's interest or adversely affect the value of collateral. "Creditor Placed Home" means "Creditor Placed Insurance" on homes, mobile homes and other real estate. "Creditor Placed Auto" means insurance on automobiles, boats or other vehicles.
Credit Risk - part of the risk-based capital formula that addresses the collectability of a company's receivables and the risk of losing a provider or intermediary that has received advance capitation payments.
Creditor-Placed Auto - single interest or dual interest credit insurance that is purchased unilaterally by the creditor, who is the named insured, subsequent to the date of the credit transaction, providing coverage against loss to property that would either impair a creditor's interest or adversely affect the value of collateral on automobiles, boats, or other vehicles.
Creditor-Placed Home - single interest or dual interest credit insurance purchased unilaterally by the creditor, who is the named insured, subsequent to the date of the credit transaction, providing coverage against loss to property that would either impair a creditor's interest or adversely affect the value of collateral on homes, mobile homes, and other real estate.
Crop - coverage protecting the insured against loss or damage to crops from a variety of perils, including but not limited to fire, lightening, loss of revenue, tornado, windstorm, hail, flood, rain, or damage by insects.
Crop-Hail Insurance - coverage for crop damage due to hail, fire or lightning.
Date of Issue - date when an insurance company issues a policy.
Declarations - policy statements regarding the applicant and property covered such as demographic and occupational information, property specifications and expected mileage per year .
Deductible - Portion of the insured loss (in dollars) paid by the policy holder
Deferred Annuity - annuity payment to be made as a single payment or a series of installments to begin at some future date, such as in a specified number of years or at a specified age.
Demutualization - conversion of a mutual insurance company to a capital stock company.
Dental Insurance - policies providing only dental treatment benefits such as routine dental examinations, preventive dental work, and dental procedures needed to treat tooth decay and diseases of the teeth and jaw.
Dental Only - line of business providing dental only coverage; coverage can be on a stand-alone basis or as a rider to a medical policy. If the coverage is as a rider, deductibles or out-of-pocket limits must be set separately from the medical coverage. Does not include self-insured business as well as FEHBP or Medicare and Medicaid programs.
Derivative - securities priced according to the value of other financial instruments such as commodity prices, interest rates, stock market prices, foreign or exchange rates.
Difference In Conditions (DIC) Insurance - special form of open-peril coverage written in conjunction with basic fire coverage and designed to provide protection against losses not reimbursed under the standard fire forms. Examples are flood and earthquake coverage.
Direct Incurred Loss - loss whereby the proximate cause is equivalent to the insured peril.
Direct Loss - Damage to covered real or personal property caused by a covered peril.
Direct Writer - an insurance company that sells policies to the insured through salaried representatives or exclusive agents only; reinsurance companies that deal directly with ceding companies instead of using brokers.
Direct Written Premium - total premiums received by an insurance company without any adjustments for the ceding of any portion of these premiums to the Reinsurer.
Directors & Officers Liability - liability coverage protecting directors or officers of a corporation from liability arising out of the performance of their professional duties on behalf of the corporation.
Disability Income - a policy designed to compensate insured individuals for a portion of the income they lose because of a disabling injury or illness.
Disability Income - Long-Term - policies that provide a weekly or monthly income benefit for more than five years for individual coverage and more than one year for group coverage for full or partial disability arising from accident and/or sickness.
Disability Income - Short-Term - policies that provide a weekly or monthly income benefit for up to five years for individual coverage and up to one year for group coverage for full or partial disability arising from accident and/or sickness.
Dividend - a refund of a portion of the premium paid by the insured from insurer surplus.
Domestic Insurer - an insurance company that is domiciled and licensed in the state in which it sells insurance.
Dual Interest - insurance that protects the creditor's and the debtor's interest in the collateral securing the debtor's credit transaction. "Dual Interest" includes insurance commonly referred to as "Limited Dual Interest."
Dwelling Property/Personal Liability - a special form of package policy composed of dwelling fire and/or allied lines, and personal liability insurance.
Early warning system - a system designed by insurance industry regulators of identifying practices and risk-related trends that contribute to systemic risk by measuring insurer' financial stability.
Earned Premium - portion of insured's prepaid premium allocated to the insurance company's loss experience, expenses, and profit year- to -date.
Earthquake - property coverages for losses resulting from a sudden trembling or shaking of the earth, including that caused by volcanic eruption. Excluded are losses resulting from fire, explosion, flood or tidal wave following the covered event.
EBNR - Earned but not reported - premium amount insurer reasonably expects to receive for which contracts are not yet final and exact amounts are not definite.
EDP Policies - coverage to protect against losses arising out of damage to or destruction of electronic data processing equipment and its software.
Effective Date - date at which an insurance policy goes into force.
Elevators and Escalators Liability - liability coverage for bodily injury or property damage arising from the use of elevators or escalators operated, maintained or controlled by the insured.
Employee Benefit Liability - liability protection for an employer for claims arising from provisions in an employee benefit insurance plan provided for the economic and social welfare of employees. Examples of items covered are pension plans, group life insurance, group health insurance, group disability income insurance, and accidental death and dismemberment.
Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) - a federal statute governing standards for private pension plans, including vesting requirements, funding mechanisms, and plan design.
Employers Liability - employers' liability coverage for the legal liability of employers arising out of injuries to employees. This code should be used when coverage is issued as an endorsement, or as part of a statutory workers' compensation policy.
Employment Practices Liability Coverage - liability insurance for employers providing coverage for wrongful termination, discrimination, or sexual harassment of the insured's current or former employees.
Encumbrance - outstanding mortgages or other debt related to real estate and any unpaid accrued acquisition or construction costs.
Endorsement - an amendment or rider to a policy adjusting the coverages and taking precedence over the general contract.
Enrollment – The total number of plans, not the total number of covered lives, providing coverage to the enrollee and their dependents.
Environmental Impairment Liability (EIL) - coverage for negligence or omission resulting in pollution or environmental contamination.
Environmental Pollution Liability - liability coverage of an insured to persons who have incurred bodily injury or property damage from acids, fumes, smoke, toxic chemicals, waste materials or other pollutants.
Equity Indexed Annuity - a fixed annuity that earns interest or provides benefits that are linked to an external reference or equity index, subject to a minimum guarantee.
Errors and Omissions Liability | Professional Liability other than Medical - liability coverage of a professional or quasi professional insured to persons who have incurred bodily injury or property damage, or who have sustained any loss from omissions arising from the performance of services for others, errors in judgment, breaches of duty, or negligent or wrongful acts in business conduct.
Event Cancellation - coverage for financial loss because of the cancellation or postponement of a specific event due to weather or other unexpected cause beyond the control of the insured.
Excess and Umbrella Liability - liability coverage of an insured above a specific amount set forth in a basic policy issued by the primary insurer; or a self insurer for losses over a stated amount; or an insured or self insurer for known or unknown gaps in basic coverages or self insured retentions.
Excess of Loss Reinsurance - loss sharing mechanism where an insurer pays all claims up to a specified amount and a reinsurance company pays any claims in excess of stated amount.
Excess Workers' Compensation - either specific and/or aggregate excess workers' compensation insurance written above an attachment point or self-insured retention.
Expense Ratio - percentage of premium income used to attain and service policies. Derived by subtracting related expenses from incurred losses and dividing by written premiums.
Experience Rating - rating system where each group is rated entirely on the basis of its own expected claims in the coming period, with retrospective adjustments for prior periods. This method is prohibited under the conditions for federal qualification.
Exposure - risk of possible loss.
Extra Expense Insurance - a type of property insurance for extraordinary expenses related to business interruption such as a back-up generator in case of power failure.
Face Amount - the value of a policy to be provided upon maturity date or death.
Facultative Reinsurance - reinsurance for a specific policy for which terms can be negotiated by the original insurer and reinsurer.
FAIR Plan - Fair Access to Insurance Requirements - state pools designed to provide insurance to property owners who are unable to obtain property insurance through conventional means.
Fair Value - the amount at which an asset (or liability) could be bought (or incurred) or sold (or settled) in a current transaction between willing parties, that is, other than in a forced or liquidation sale. Quoted market prices in active markets are the best evidence of fair value and shall be used as the basis for the measurement, if available. If a quoted market price is available, the fair value is the product of the number of trading units times market price.
Farmowners Insurance - farmowners insurance sold for personal, family or household purposes. This package policy is similar to a homeowners policy, in that it has been developed for farms and ranches and includes both property and liability coverage for personal and business losses. Coverage includes farm dwellings and their contents, barns, stables, other farm structures and farm inland marine, such as mobile equipment and livestock.
Federal Flood Insurance - coverage for qualifying residents and businesses in flood prone regions through the National Flood Insurance Act, a federally subsidized flood insurance program enacted in 1968.
Federally Reinsured Crop - crop insurance coverage that is either wholly or in part reinsured by the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) under the Standard Reinsurance Agreement (SRA). This includes the following products: Multiple Peril Crop Insurance (MPCI); Catastrophic Insurance, Crop Revenue Coverage (CRC); Income Protection and Revenue Assurance.
Fees Payable - fees incurred but not yet paid.
FEMA - Federal Emergency Management Agency - an independent agency, tasked with responding to, planning for, mitigating and recovery efforts of natural disasters.
Fidelity - a bond or policy covering an employer's loss resulting from an employee's dishonest act (e.g., loss of cash, securities, valuables, etc.).
Financial Guaranty - a surety bond, insurance policy, or an indemnity contract (when issued by an insurer), or similar guaranty types under which loss is payable upon proof of occurrence of financial loss to an insured claimant, obligee or indemnitee as a result of failure to perform a financial obligation or any other permissible product that is defined as or determined to be financial guaranty insurance.
Financial Reporting - insurance companies are required to maintain records and file annual and quarterly financial statements with regulators in accordance with statutory accounting principles (SAP). Statutory rules also govern how insurers should establish reserves for invested assets and claims and the conditions under which they can claim credit for reinsurance ceded.
Financial Responsibility Law - a statute requiring motorists to show capacity to pay for automobile-related losses.
Financial Statement - balance sheet and profit and loss statement of an insurance company. This statement is used by the NAIC, and by State Insurance Commissioners to regulate an insurance company according to reserve requirements, assets, and other liabilities.
Fire - coverage protecting the insured against the loss to real or personal property from damage caused by the peril of fire or lightning, including business interruption, loss of rents, etc.
Fire Legal Liability - coverage for property loss liability as the result of separate negligent acts and/or omissions of the insured that allows a spreading fire to cause bodily injury or property damage of others. An example is a tenant who, while occupying another party's property, through negligence causes fire damage to the property.
Flood - coverage protecting the insured against loss or damage to real or personal property from flood. (Note: If coverage for flood is offered as an additional peril on a property insurance policy, file it under the applicable property insurance filing code.)
Foreign Insurer - an insurance company selling policies in a state other than the state in which they are incorporated or domiciled.
Foreign Investment - an investment in a foreign jurisdiction, or an investment in a person, real estate or asset domiciled in a foreign jurisdiction. An investment shall not be deemed to be foreign if the issuing person, qualified primary credits source or qualified guarantor is a domestic jurisdiction or a person domiciled in a domestic jurisdiction, unless: a) The issuing person is a shell business entity; and b) The investment is not assumed, accepted, guaranteed or insured or otherwise backed by a domestic jurisdiction or a person, that is not a shell business entity, domiciled in a domestic jurisdiction.
Foreign jurisdiction - a jurisdiction outside of the United States, Canada or any province or political subdivision of the foregoing.
Fraternal Insurance - a form of group coverage or disability insurance available to members of a fraternal organization.
Fronting - an arrangement in which a primary insurer acts as the insurer of record by issuing a policy, but then passes the entire risk to a reinsurer in exchange for a commission. Often, the fronting insurer is licensed to do business in a state or country where the risk is located, but the reinsurer is not.
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) - an aggregate of the accounting standards, principles and best practices for the preparation of financial statements allowing for consistency in reporting.
Gramm-Leach Bliley Act (GLBA) - act, repealing Glass-Steagal Act of 1933, allows consolidation of commercial banks, investment institutions and insurance companies. Established a framework of responsibilities of federal and state regulators for these financial industries. It permits financial services companies to merge and engage in a variety of new business activities, including insurance, while attempting to address the regulatory issues raised by such combinations.
Goodwill - the difference between the cost of acquiring the entity and the reporting entity's share of the book value of the acquired entity.
Gross Paid-in and Contributed Surplus - amount of capital received in excess of the par value of the stock issued.
Gross Premium - the net premium for insurance plus commissions, operating and miscellaneous commissions. For life insurance, this is the premium including dividends.
Group Accident and Health - coverage written on a group basis (e.g., employees of a single employer and their dependents) that pays scheduled benefits or medical expenses caused by disease, accidental injury or accidental death. Excludes amounts attributable to uninsured accidents and health plans and the uninsured portion of partially insured accident and health plans.
Group Annuities – Deferred Non- Variable and Variable - an annuity contract that provides an accumulation based on both (1) funds that accumulate based on a guaranteed crediting interest rates or additional interest rate applied to designated considerations, and (2) funds where the accumulation vary in accordance with the rate of return of the underlying investment portfolio selected by the policyholder. The contract provides for the initiation of payments at some designated future date.
Group Annuities – Deferred Variable - an annuity contract that provides an accumulation based fund where the accumulation varies in accordance with the rate of return of the underlying investment portfolio selected by the policyholder. Must include at least one option to have the accumulation vary in accordance with the rate of return of the underlying investment portfolio selected by the policyholder and may include at least one option to have the series of payments vary in accordance with the rate of return of the underlying investment portfolio selected by the policyholder. This annuity contract provides for the initiation of payments at some designated future date.
Group Annuities – Immediate Non-Variable and Variable - an annuity contract that provides an accumulation based on both (1) funds that accumulate based on a guaranteed crediting interest rates or additional interest rate applied to designated considerations, and (2) funds where the accumulation vary in accordance with the rate of return of the underlying investment portfolio selected by the policyholder. The contract provides for the initiation of payments at some interval that may vary, however the annuity payouts must begin within 13 months.
Group Annuities – Immediate Variable - an annuity contract that provides for the first payment of the annuity at the end of the fixed interval of payment after purchase. The interval may vary, however the annuity payouts must begin within 13 months. The amount varies with the value of equities (separate account) purchased as investments by the insurance companies.
Group Annuities – Unallocated - annuity contracts or portions thereof where the Insurer purchases an annuity for the retirees.
Group Annuity - a contract providing income for a specified period of time, or duration of life for a person or persons established to benefit a group of employees.
Group Health - health insurance issued to employers, associations, trusts, or other groups covering employees or members and/or their dependents, to whom a certificate of coverage may be provided.
Group Code - a unique three to five digit number assigned by the NAIC to identify those companies that are part of a larger group of insurance companies.
Group Credit – Life - contracts sold in connection with loan/credit transactions or other credit transactions, which do not exceed a stated duration and/or amount and provide insurance protection against death.
Group Health Organizations – Health Maintenance (HMO) - a plan under which an enrollee pays a membership fixed fee in advance in return for a wide range of comprehensive health care services with the HMO's approved providers in a designated service area.
Guaranty Fund - funding mechanism employed by states to provide funds to cover policyholder obligations of insolvent reporting entities.
Hard Market - a market characterized by high demand and low supply.
Hazard - circumstance which tends to increase the probability or severity of a loss.
Health – Excess/Stop Loss - this type of insurance may be extended to either a health plan or a self-insured employer plan. Its purpose is to insure against the risk that any one claim will exceed a specific dollar amount or that an entire plan's losses will exceed a specific amount.
Health Insurance - a generic term applying to all types of insurance indemnifying or reimbursing for losses caused by bodily injury or illness including related medical expenses.
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) - a medical group plan that provides physician, hospital, and clinical services to participating members in exchange for a periodic flat fee.
Health Plan - written promise of coverage given to an individual, family, or group of covered individuals, where a beneficiary is entitled to receive a defined set of health care benefits in exchange for a defined consideration, such as a premium.
Hold-Harmless Agreement - A risk transfer mechanism whereby one party assumes the liability of another party by contract
Homeowners Insurance - a package policy combining real and personal property coverage with personal liability coverage. Coverage applicable to the dwelling, appurtenant structures, unscheduled personal property and additional living expense are typical. Includes mobile homes at a fixed location.
Hospital Indemnity Coverage - coverage that provides a pre-determined, fixed benefit or daily indemnity for contingencies based on a stay at a hospital or intensive care facility.
Hull Insurance - coverage for damage to a vessel or aircraft and affixed items.
Incontestability Provision - a life insurance and annuity provision limiting the time within which the insurer has the legal right to void the contract on grounds of material misrepresentation in the policy application.
Incurred But Not Reported (IBNR) - (Pure IBNR) claims that have occurred but the insurer has not been notified of them at the reporting date. Estimates are established to book these claims. May include losses that have been reported to the reporting entity but have not yet been entered into the claims system or bulk provisions. Bulk provisions are reserves included with other IBNR reserves to reflect deficiencies in known case reserves. IBNR can sometimes include estimates of incurred but Not Enough Reported (IBNER)
Incurred Claims - paid claims plus amounts held in reserve for those that have been incurred but not yet paid.
Incurred Losses - sustained losses, paid or not, during a specified time period. Incurred losses are typically found by combining losses paid during the period plus unpaid losses sustained during the time period minus outstanding losses at the beginning of the period incurred in the previous period.
Indemnity, Principle of - a general legal principle related to insurance that holds that the individual recovering under an insurance policy should be restored to the approximate financial position he or she was in prior to the loss. Legal principle limiting compensation for damages be equivalent to the losses incurred.
Independent Adjuster - freelance contractor paid a fee for adjusting losses on behalf of companies.
Independent Agent - a representative of multiple insurance companies who sells and services policies for records which they own and operate under the American Agency System.
Independent Contractor - an individual who is not employed for a company but instead works for themselves providing goods or services to clients for a fee.
Index Annuity - an interest bearing fixed annuity tied to an equity index, such as the Dow Jones Industrial Average or S & P 500.
Individual Annuities – Deferred Variable - an annuity contract that provides an accumulation based fund where the accumulation varies in accordance with the rate of return of the underlying investment portfolio selected by the policyholder. Must include at least one option to have the accumulation vary in accordance with the rate of return of the underlying investment portfolio selected by the policyholder and may include at least one option to have the series of payments vary in accordance with the rate of return of the underlying investment portfolio selected by the policyholder. This annuity contract provides for the initiation of payments at some designated future date.
Individual Annuities – Immediate Variable - an annuity contract that provides for the first payment of the annuity at the end of the fixed interval of payment after purchase. The interval may vary, however the annuity payouts must begin within 13 months. The amount varies with the value of equities (separate account) purchased as investments by the insurance companies.
Individual Annuities – Special - contracts with certain noteworthy attributes.
Individual Annuities- Deferred Non-Variable and Variable - an annuity contract that provides an accumulation based on both (1) funds that accumulate based on a guaranteed crediting interest rates or additional interest rate applied to designated considerations, and (2) funds where the accumulation vary in accordance with the rate of return of the underlying investment portfolio selected by the policyholder. The contract provides for the initiation of payments at some designated future date.
Individual Annuities- Deferred Non-Variable - an annuity contract that provides an accumulation based on funds that accumulate based on a guaranteed crediting interest rate or additional interest rate. This annuity contract provides for the initiation of payments at some designated future date.
Individual Annuities- Immediate Non-Variable - an annuity contract that provides for the fixed payment of the annuity at the end of the first interval of payment after purchase. The interval may vary, however the annuity payouts must begin within 13 months.
Individual Annuities- Immediate Non-Variable and Variable - an annuity contract that provides an accumulation based on both (1) funds that accumulate based on a guaranteed crediting interest rates or additional interest rate applied to designated considerations, and (2) funds where the accumulation vary in accordance with the rate of return of the underlying investment portfolio selected by the policyholder. The contract provides for the initiation of payments at some interval that may vary, however the annuity payouts must begin within 13 months.
Individual Health - health insurance where the policy is issued to an individual covering the individual and/or their dependents in the individual market. This includes conversions from group policies.
Individual Credit – Credit Disability - makes monthly loan/credit transaction payments to the creditor upon the disablement of an insured debtor.
Individual Credit – Life - contracts sold in connection with loan/credit transactions or other credit transactions, which do not exceed a stated duration and/or amount and provide insurance protection against death.
Industrial Life - Industrial life insurance, also called "debit" insurance, is insurance under which premiums are paid monthly or more often, the face amount of the policy does not exceed a stated amount, and the words "industrial policy" are printed in prominent type on the face of the policy.
Inland Marine - coverage for property that may be in transit, held by a bailee, at a fixed location, a movable good that is often at different locations (e.g., off road constructions equipment), or scheduled property (e.g., Homeowners Personal Property Floater) including items such as live animals, property with antique or collector's value, etc. This line also includes instrumentalities of transportation and communication, such as bridges, tunnels, piers, wharves, docks, pipelines, power and phone lines, and radio and television towers.
Insurable Interest - A right or relationship in regard to the subject matter of the insured contract such that the insured can suffer a financial loss from damage, loss or destruction to it. (Bickelhaupt and Magee )
Insurance - an economic device transferring risk from an individual to a company and reducing the uncertainty of risk via pooling.
Insurance Holding Company System - consists of two or more affiliated persons, one or more of which is an insurer.
Insurance Regulatory Information System (IRIS) - a baseline solvency screening system for the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) and state insurance regulators established in the mid-1970s.
Insurance to Value - Amount of insurance purchased vs. the actual replacement cost of the insured property expressed as a ratio.
Insured - party(ies) covered by an insurance policy.
Insurer - an insurer or reinsurer authorized to write property and/or casualty insurance under the laws of any state.
Intermediary - a person, corporation or other business entity (not licensed as a medical provider) that arranges, by contracts with physicians and other licensed medical providers, to deliver health services for a health insurer and its enrollees via a separate contract between the intermediary and the insurer.
International - includes all business transacted outside the U.S. and its territories and possessions where the appropriate line of business is not determinable.
Internet Liability Insurance/Cyber Insurance - coverage for cyber commerce including copyright infringement, libel, and violation of privacy.
Investment grade - the obligation has been determined to be in one of the top four generic lettered rating classifications by a securities rating agency acceptable to the commissioner, that the obligation has been identified in writing by such a rating agency to be of investment grade quality, or, if the obligation has not been submitted to any such rating agency, that the obligation has been determined to be investment grade (Class 1 and Class 2) by the Securities Valuation Office of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners.
Investment Income Accrued - investment income earned as of the reporting date but not legally due to be paid to the reporting entity until subsequent to the reporting date.
Investment Income Due - investment income earned and legally due to be paid to the reporting entity as of the reporting date.
Investment Income Gross - shall be recorded as earned and shall include investment income collected during the period, the change in investment income due and accrued, the change in unearned investment income plus any amortization (e.g., discounts or premiums on bonds, origination fees on mortgage loans, etc.)
Irrevocable Beneficiary - a life insurance policy beneficiary who has a vested interest in the policy proceeds even during the insured's lifetime because the policy owner has the right to change the beneficiary designation only after obtaining the beneficiary's consent.